The museum, Targosz argued, would provide a place of culture for Nazi officers stationed at Auschwitz. Such a museum would exhibit examples of Nazi-approved art , including handicrafts and folk objects "collected" from the prisoners. He consented to the plan and ordered Targosz early in to organize the museum.
Thus, Targosz managed both to save his own life and to have some of his drawings exhibited. The museum at Auschwitz remained open in several locations until the camp was liberated in Its exhibits included ceramics, glass, and metalwork crafted by prisoners, as well as coins and antiques confiscated from the deportees.
It also displayed Nazi military regalia and documents, as well as Jewish prayer books, shawls, and phylacteries. The other art shown there included landscapes, portraits of Nazi officials, and illustrations of German legends. Although the museum was not an official labor kommando for prisoners at Auschwitz I, it became a place where Polish artists incarcerated at Auschwitz could go after completing their official assignments. There they produced what was ordered, as well as their own works in their few free late evening hours and on Sundays.
The museum had materials available for officially commissioned works and thus also provided supplies for secret sketches, portraits, and caricatures, that they created for themselves. Thus, the Krakow sculptor Xawery Dunikowski , prisoner number , was assigned to make a model of the camp. The materials available to him officially were, in part, filched for a series of clandestine portraits of sleeping fellow inmates.
Similarly, the graphic artist Mieczyslaw Koscielniak , prisoner , produced officially requested art showing the orchestra and hospital at Auschwitz , and used materials pilfered from this assignment for clandestine sketches of sickness, suffering, and despair. Initially Koscielniak had been assigned to heavy demolition labor in kommando number 2. There, he spontaneously risked talking to an SS guard and offered to draw his portrait in five minutes. Koscielniak drew as a duty to the resistance movement, attempting to smuggle more than works outside the camp, although only a relatively small number of these works are known to have survived.
It is clear that portraits were commissioned by the Germans as gifts to superiors or to their own families, and also for documentation of medical experiments. Thus, Josef Mengele commissioned a Czech Jewish artist, Dinah Gottliebova , to do portraits of Roma Gypsy prisoners as illustrations for a book he hoped to publish about his medical experiments in Auschwitz. Other prisoner artists, like Leo Haas, Halina Olomucki , and Arnold Daghani also reported receiving orders to do portraits of Nazi officers, often from photographs of relatives missing in action.
If the resulting work was acceptable, it often helped secure more lenient work assignments or better rations. Obviously compulsory work produced by inmate artists was meticulously executed and technically excellent, since the interned artist? Moreover, paper, ink, and watercolor available through official work could be used as materials for clandestine art.
There is one survey of the Jewish question in Europe during World War Two and the conditions of Germany's concentration camps which is almost unique in its honesty and objectivity, the three-volume Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross on its Activities during the Second World War, Geneva, The ICRC successfully applied the Geneva military convention in order to gain access to civilian internees held in Central and Western Europe by the Germany authorities. The millions of civilian and military internees held in the USSR, whose conditions were known to be by far the worst, were completely cut off from any international contact or supervision.
The Red Cross Report is of value in that it first clarifies the legitimate circumstances under which Jews were detained in concentration camps, i. These persons, it continues, "were placed on the same footing as persons arrested or imprisoned under common law for security reasons. The Report admits that the Germans were at first reluctant to permit supervision by the Red Cross of people detained on grounds relating to security, but by the latter part of , the ICRC obtained important concessions from Germany.
They were permitted to distribute food parcels to major concentration camps in Germany from August , and "from February onwards this concession was extended to all other camps and prisons" Vol. The ICRC soon established contact with camp commandants and launched a food relief programme which continued to function until the last months of , letters of thanks for which came pouring in from Jewish internees.
From the autumn of until May , about 1,, parcels with a total weight of 4, tons were sent off to the concentration camps" Vol. II I, p. In addition to food, these contained clothing and pharmaceutical supplies. III, p. In the course of the war, "The Committee was in a position to transfer and distribute in the form of relief supplies over twenty million Swiss francs collected by Jewish welfare organisations throughout the world, in particular by the American Joint Distribution Committee of New York" Vol.
This latter organisation was permitted by the German Government to maintain offices in Berlin until the American entry into the war.
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The ICRC complained that obstruction of their vast relief operation for Jewish internees came not from the Germans but from the tight Allied blockade of Europe. Most of their purchases of relief food were made in Rumania, Hungary and Slovakia. The ICRC had special praise for the liberal conditions which prevailed at Theresienstadt up to the time of their last visits there in April This camp, "where there were about 40, Jews deported from various countries was a relatively privileged ghetto" Vol.
According to the Report, "'The Committee's delegates were able to visit the camp at Theresienstadt Terezin which was used exclusively for Jews and was governed by special conditions.
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From information gathered by the Committee, this camp had been started as an experiment by certain leaders of the Reich These men wished to give the Jews the means of setting up a communal life in a town under their own administration and possessing almost complete autonomy. They confirmed the favourable impression gained on the first visit" Vol. The aid then ceased, and the ICRC complained bitterly that it never succeeded "in sending anything whatsoever to Russia" Vol. II, p.
The same situation applied to many of the German camps after their "liberation" by the Russians. The ICRC received a voluminous flow of mail from Auschwitz until the period of the Soviet occupation, when many of the internees were evacuated westward. But the efforts of the Red Cross to send relief to internees remaining at Auschwitz under Soviet control were futile.
However, food parcels continued to be sent to former Auschwitz inmates transferred west to such camps as Buchenwald and Oranienburg. No Evidence Of Genocide One of the most important aspects of the Red Cross Report is that it clarifies the true cause of those deaths that undoubtedly occurred in the camps toward the end of the war. Says the Report: "In the chaotic condition of Germany after the invasion during the final months of the war, the camps received no food supplies at all and starvation claimed an increasing number of victims.
Kaltenbrunner gave even more decisive results. Relief could henceforth be distributed by the ICRC, and one delegate was authorised to stay in each camp Clearly, the German authorities were at pains to relieve the dire situation as far as they were able. The Red Cross are quite explicit in stating that food supplies ceased at this time due to the Allied bombing of German transportation, and in the interests of interned Jews they had protested on March 15th, against "the barbarous aerial warfare of the Allies" Inter Arma Caritas, p.
By October 2nd, , the ICRC warned the German Foreign Office of the impending collapse of the German transportation system, declaring that starvation conditions for people throughout Germany were becoming inevitable. In dealing with this comprehensive, three-volume Report, it is important to stress that the delegates of the International Red Cross found no evidence whatever at the camps in Axis occupied Europe of a deliberate policy to exterminate the Jews.
In all its 1, pages the Report does not even mention such a thing as a gas chamber. It admits that Jews, like many other wartime nationalities, suffered rigours and privations, but its complete silence on the subject of planned extermination is ample refutation of the Six Million legend. Like the Vatican representatives with whom they worked, the Red Cross found itself unable to indulge in the irresponsible charges of genocide which had become the order of the day. So far as the genuine mortality rate is concerned, the Report points out that most of the Jewish doctors from the camps were being used to combat typhus on the eastern front, so that they were unavailable when the typhus epidemics of broke out in the camps Vol.
Again the Report makes nonsense of this allegation.
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They had often to take action to have fixtures made less primitive, and to get them repaired or enlarged" Vol. Jewish Civilian Population deals with the "aid given to the Jewish section of the free population," and this chapter makes it quite plain that by no means all of the European Jews were placed in internment camps, but remained, subject to certain restrictions, as part of the free civilian population. Those who remained in Slovakia seem to have been in comparative safety until the end of August , when a rising against the German forces took place.
While it is true that the law of May 15th, had brought about the internment of several thousand Jews, these people were held in camps where the conditions of food and lodging were tolerable, and where the internees were allowed to do paid work on terms almost equal to those of the free labour market" Vol. Not only did large numbers of the three million or so European Jews avoid internment altogether, but the emigration of Jews continued throughout the war, generally by way of Hungary, Rumania and Turkey.
Ironically, post-war Jewish emigration from German-occupied territories was also facilitated by the Reich, as in the case of the Polish Jews who had escaped to France before its occupation. As future U. The emigration of European Jews from Hungary in particular proceeded during the war unhindered by the German authorities. Even after the replacement of the Horthy Government in following its attempted armistice with the Soviet Union with a government more dependent on German authority, the emigration of Jews continued.
The Committee secured the pledges of both Britain and the United States "to give support by every means to the emigration of Jews from Hungary," and from the U. His name was Claes Rosenfelt. He was a Jew. Nicholas, the son of Claes was the ancestor of both Franklin and Theodore.
He married a Jewish girl, named Kunst, in Nicholas had a son named Jacobus Rosenfeld He accumulated a fortune. He then changed his name to Nicholas Roosevelt. Of his four sons, Isaac died young. Nicholas married Sarah Solomons. Jacobus married Catherina Hardenburg. The Roosevelts were not a fighting but a peace-loving people, devoted to trade. Isaac became a capitalist. He founded the Bank of New York in Schmalix genealogist writes: 'In the seventh generation we see the mother of Franklin Delano Roosevelt as being of Jewish descent.
About this the directors of the West Indies Co. Interactive Roosevelt Churchill's M other W as Jewish Winston Churchill was the spoiled son of an aristocratic father and an American mother who doted on him. As a young man he was a dilettante who developed an early taste for expensive clothes, imported cigars and old brandy.
Aam ka vaigyanik naam hindi mein
At 26 he entered parliament. Jenny Jacobson Churchill's mother was Jenny Jerome. Her father was involved in theatre investment and changed his name from Jacobson to Jerome. In England at the beginning of the s commenting that there were very few English aristocrat families left that hadn't intermarried with aspiring Jews. It was said that, when they visited the Continent, Europeans were surprised to see Jewish looking persons with English titles and accents.
In the Georgian language "shvili" means son of, or son, as in Johnson. Therefore Djugashvili means Jewison.